Time Release N-Acetyl-Cysteine Caps is recommended by Dr. Simon I. Angeli, associate professor at the University of Miamis Ear Institute.
N-acetylcysteine CAPS is in a time release form of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a powerful amino acid and a precursor to the critical antioxidant glutathione. NAC helps the body synthesize glutathione, which is a powerful antioxidant that exerts a variety of protective effects including detoxification and intracellular defense against oxidative stress. TR NAC CAPS releases in the small intestine over an 8 hour period compared to the immediate release formulations available in the marketplace that disintegrate in the stomach. The extended release delivery form allows the bloodstream to absorb a consistent amount of NAC throughout an 8 hour period.
The current N-acetylcysteine (NAC) products in the market are immediate release formulations. A time release NAC offers the following advantages:
1.) Sustained Blood Levels
The size and frequency of dosing for NAC is determined by the pharmacodynamic and phamacokinetics of NAC. The slower the absorption rate, the less likely blood concentrations of NAC will fluctuate within a given dosing interval. Since NAC has a short half-life (approximately 2.15 hours), the use of an time release formulation may maintain a therapeutic
concentration in the blood over a prolonged period of time.
2.) Attenuation of Adverse Events
Since peak blood concentrations of NAC are reached in approximately less than one hour after dosing with the immediate release NAC, the occurrence of adverse events may be associated directly with transient high blood concentration. Such adverse events include, but are not limited to, nausea, vomiting, fever, skin rash and mouth soreness. The use of an time release formulation would potentially avoid high initial blood
concentrations which may reduce the occurrence of adverse events.
3.) Improved Patient Compliance
Since NAC has a short half-life, it is subject to dosing at frequent intervals-e.g.-two (2) to four (4) times a day-in order to maintain the desired blood concentration. It is well known that there is an inverse correlation between the frequency of dosing and patient compliance. A reduction in the number of daily doses offered by an time release formulation has the potential for substantially improving patient compliance.
RESEARCH AND HEALTH APPLICATIONS
N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine, or NAC, is an amino acid that acts as an antioxidant and is a precursor to glutathione (GSH). While glutathione can be described as the most important endogenously produced antioxidant in the human body, it is also a (tri)peptide, and the body has a tendency to cleave peptides into their individual units. In the case of glutathione, those individual amino acid units are glutamic acid, glycine and cysteine. Of these, cysteine is the most critical for GSH synthesis, and N-acetyl-l-cysteine is an excellent form of cysteine. Therefore, while there is still a school of thought that believes supplemental glutathione can be effective, the fact remains that the most important component for the synthesis of glutathione is NAC. NAC is also more bioavailable than glutathione and is approximately 6 times as cost-effective. However, it is in the role of glutathione precursor that NAC exerts most of its beneficial effects. These include applications for:
NAC has the unique ability to inhibit levels of a specific lipoprotein called Lp(a), which is a highly advanced indicator of heart disease. In fact, Lp(a) is a much more reliable indicator than blood cholesterol levels, low density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, or the ratio of LDL to HDL.Diets and drugs designed to lower blood cholesterol levels do not lower Lp(a) levels. Recently, it was reported that NAC is the most effective nutrient known to lower Lp(a) levels. In fact, NAC is capable of lowering Lp(a) levels by 70%. LP(a) is comprised of an LDL particle attached to the large glycoprotein apo(a) by one or more disulfide bonds. NAC breaks up the disulfide bonds by converting each disulfide group into two sulphydryl groups.NAC also inhibits heart damage by preventing LDL from being oxidized, by reducing plasma homocysteine levels, and by free-radical quenching effects. NAC also protects against ischaemic and reperfusion damage. NAC also potentiates the coronary dilating and anti-platelet effects of nitroglycerine as well as limiting the development of tolerance to nitroglycerine. Finally, ST-depression, a clinical sign of myocardial ischemia, was not seen following pretreatment with NAC, suggesting attenuation of impaired tissue oxygenation and preservation of myocardial performance by NAC.
Detoxification & Chelation
Sulphydryl groups protect against toxins. SH groups react directly with many poisons, including herbicides, drugs (acetaminophen), environmental pollutants such as carbon tetrachloride, microorganisms including E. coli and aflatoxin, and against heavy metals. Indirectly, NAC helps with detoxification by producing optimal amounts of GSH for conjugation reactions, making harmful compounds less toxic. NAC is approved as a drug in some European jurisdictions for use in preventing liver damage from acetaminophen overdose.
NAC has been used for over 30 years as a mucolytic in persons having bronchopulmonary diseases including chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, asthma, sinusitis, and pneumonia. NAC helps reduce the viscosity of mucus so that it may be more easily coughed up. NAC accomplishes this by converting the disulphide bond of the mucoproteins into sulphydryl bonds and cleaving the mucoproteins into smaller molecules. Recently, a number of studies have appeared studying the role of NAC in preventing influenza. In a 1991 Italian double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 262 patients with a susceptibility to influenza, NAC dosages of 600mg twice a day resulted in only 29% developing flu-like clinical syndrome, compared to 51% of placebo-treated subjects. Although the body's intestinal absorption of NAC is both rapid and almost complete, its bioavailability (the amount that actually enters the bloodstream) is quite low - approximately 4-10%. This is because the first-pass metabolism of NAC by the cells of the small intestine and liver result in the incorporation of NAC into peptide chains and the formation of a variety of metabolites. Furthermore, NAC levels peak in the bloodstream less than one hour after oral ingestion and have a plasma half-life of approximately 2.15 hours. In order to overcome this problem, NAC's antioxidant and cardio-protective abilities have been enhanced by its infusion to a time-released, sustained delivery system that more than triples NAC's ability to stay in the bloodstream and prolong its benefits accordingly.
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