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Jet A-1 is a kerosene grade of fuel suitable for most turbine engined aircraft. It is produced to a stringent internationally agreed standard, has a flash point above 38°C (100°F) and a freeze point maximum of -47°C. It is widely available outside the U.S.A. Jet A-1 meets the requirements of British specification DEF STAN 91-91 (Jet A-1), (formerly DERD 2494 (AVTUR)), ASTM specification D1655 (Jet A-1) and IATA Guidance Material (Kerosine Type), NATO Code F-35.
Jet A is a similar kerosene type of fuel, produced to an ASTM specification and normally only available in the U.S.A. It has the same flash point as Jet A-1 but a higher freeze point maximum (-40°C). It is supplied against the ASTM D1655 (Jet A) specification.
Fuel System Icing Inhibitor (FSII)
In cold climate operations, or as aircraft ascend to altitude even in tropical climates, water-freezing tempeartures can occur. As fuel cools, roughly one part per million of dissolved water can come out of solution as free water for every degree fahrenheit of temperature drop. Certain aircraft without fuel system heaters require FSII be properly blended into the fuel to prevent free water from freezing in the fuel system, which could cause blockage of filters and fine passges by the formation of ice cystals.
Note: DiEGME (DiEthylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether) additive is the only anti-icing additive permitted in jet fuels.
Injecting the FSII
DiEGME dissolves into fuel, but with difficulty. It must be finely dispersed into the fuel flow proportionally as fine droplets in order to get sufficient surface area to promote rapid dissolving of the additive into the fuel before droplets can settle to the bottom of a container or pipe. Injection should not be immediately upstream of any filter vessel. To prevent additive loss and /or filter damage, it is best to inject upstream of some form of high shear device or through an atomising nozzle. FSII additive does not fully desolve onto fuel containing excessive free water, so it is best to additize downstream of a filter seperator or water absorbing filter.
Corrosion Inhibitors are used to minimize corrosion of pipelines and tanks, etc in contact with fuels in which trace amounts of water are sometimes present.
Static Dissipator Additive (SDA)
Because static electrical charges can build up in fuels moving through fuel systems, particularly through filters, SDA can be added to jet fuels to increase the electrical conductivity of the fuel. This increase in conductivity promotes a rapid dissipation of static electric charge in the fuel that may have been created by pumping the fuel through piping, valving and filters.
Stadis 450 is the only additive being manufactured for use in jet fuel. CAN/CGSB-3.24 requires the use of the additive to reduce the risk from electrostatic charges.