Aggregate Resources in Ontario
Aggregate pits and rock quarries are handlers of water, not water consumers. Despite being a relatively “clean” industry, the aggregate community is coming under increasing
environmental scrutiny as a result of increased public awareness and conflicts with other
land uses. As well, there is pressure from Ministry of Natural Resources, Ministry of the Environment, local Conservation Authorities and municipalities
to ensure that potential
environmental impacts are understood, predicted and mitigated as much as possible. Regulatory duplication continues to hamper this sector, but being aware of these factors allows Azimuth
to remain efficient in addressing such concerns for our clients. With any non-renewable resource, there is some form of impact, however,
the degree of impact can be minimized or mitigated, particularly for off-site form and function.
The aggregate industry has several limitations. Pits and quarries must be located where suitable materials are found. Their location is entirely a
function of their depositional environment. High quality unconsolidated deposits (gravel, sand) are frequently found as eskers, kame moraines or glacial spillways.
High quality limestone is in certain locations in Ontario where the bedrock outcrops is buried to only a shallow depth by the overburden. Today, these settings can
be environmentally significant, on a local, regional or provincial scale (e.g. the Niagara Escarpment).
Shortages of aggregates in specific market areas, especially the Greater Toronto Area are because of depletion of existing reserves, decreased access to
aggregate reserves due to environmental and social restrictions, and sterilization by urbanization. Increased protection of the
Niagara Escarpment and the Oak
Ridges Moraine simply shifts aggregate extraction to more remote sources. Regardless of the proximity of the primary aggregate resource areas to the
market, the potential environmental impacts of the extraction of aggregate relates to three broad categories:
- changes in ground water characteristics, which may affect other ground water users or ecosystems;
- changes in surface water characteristics, which may affect fisheries and wetland habitat; and
- disruption to flora and fauna.
The Regulation of Aggregate Resources
The extraction of sand, gravel, and bedrock resources is regulated under the . Under the of the , applications are required to be accompanied by a Level 1 and/or Level 2 Natural Environment and Hydrogeological Studies.
While the specifically regulates pits and quarries, other legislation may apply during the application for a licence and during the operation of the site, to further strengthen environmental protection. These may include:
- Conservation Authorities Act
- Environmental Bill of Rights
- Environmental Protection Act
- Fisheries Act
- Lakes and Rivers Improvement Act
- Municipal Act
- Niagara Escarpment Planning and Development Act
- Greenbelt Act
- Oak Ridges Moraine Conservation Act
- Ontario Water Resources Act
- Planning Act (Provincial Policy Statement), and
- the Clean Water Act.
Environmental Evaluations to Comply with Ontario Regulations
Azimuth Environmental Consulting, Inc has extensive experience, which includes, but is not limited to:
- Level 1 and 2 Hydrogeological Investigations in support of successful Aggregate Resource Act licenses for both pits and quarries throughout southern Ontario (cumulative surface water and groundwater impact assessments);
- Ontario Water Resources Act Section 34 (Permit to Take Water) and Section 53 (Certificate of Approvals) for pits and quarries in both southern and northern Ontario;
- Aggregate Resource Evaluations (resource estimates for sand and gravel pits and limestone quarries);
- Third party review of Ministry of Northern Development and Mines Aggregate Resource Mapping;
- Thermal Impact Assessments for pits which extract from below the water table;
- Fisheries Impact Assessments for pits which extract from below the water table;
- Environmental Impact Assessments for pits in southern Ontario; and
- Expert testimony at Ontario Municipal Board OMB and Litigation Proceedings
Additional information can be obtained by contacting Mike Jones or David Ketcheson directly.