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By: A&b Geosynthetics  09-12-2011
Keywords: landfill

Geogrids

Geogrids represent a rapidly growing segment within the geosynthetics area. Rather than being a woven, nonwoven or knit textile (or even a textile-like) fabric, geogrids are plastics formed into a very open, gridlike configuration, i.e., they have large apertures. Geogrids are either stretched in one or two directions for improved physical properties or made on weaving machinery by unique methods. By themselves, there are at least 25 application areas, however, they function almost exclusively as reinforcement materials.

Current Uses

The geogrids that result from the process described above are relatively high-strength, high-modulus, low-creep-sensitive polymers with apertures varying from 0.5 to 4 in. (1 to 10 cm) in size. These holes are either elongated ellipses, near-squares with rounded corners, squares or rectangles. Under some circumstances, separation may be a function, but usually it is not. Invariably, geogrids are involved in some form of reinforcement. The following uses have been reported in the literature.

1. Beneath aggregate in unpaved roads
2. Beneath ballast in railroad construction
3. Beneath surcharge fills or temporary construction sites
4. Reinforcement of embankment fills and earth dams
5. Repairing slope failures and landslides
6. As gabions for wall construction
7. As gabions for erosion control structures
8. As gabions for bridge abutments
9. Construction of mattresses for fills over soft soils
10. Construction of mattresses over peat, tundra, and muskeg
11. As sheet anchors for retaining-wall facing panels
12. As sheet anchors and facing panels to form an entire retaining wall
13. As asphalt reinforcement in pavements
14. As cement or concrete reinforcement in a wide variety of applications
15. To reinforce disjointed rock sections
16. To reinforcement disjointed concrete sections
17. As inserts between geotextiles
18. As inserts between geomembranes
19. As inserts between a geotextile and a geomembrane
20. To reinforce landfills to allow for vertical expansion
21. To reinforce landfills to allow for lateral expansion
22. To stabilize leachate collection stone as veneer reinforcement
23. To stabilize landfill cover soil as veneer reinforcement
24. As three-dimensional mattresses for landfill bearing capacity
25. As three-dimensional mattresses for embankments over soft soils

Product Applications

Stabilization

Biaxial EnduraGrid geogrid, with its square aperture, provides high tensile strength in both directions. The optimized geometry of nodes and ribs increase the shear resistance by a process of interlocking between the square ribs and soil. EnduraGrid geogrid can be used with any soil type.

             

                                                            

By establishing a composite platform from the fill materials and the interaction of EnduraGrid geogrid,the load-spread angle can be increased to approximately 45°This makes load dispersal more effective and reduces the foundation height and construction cost.

Soft Soil Foundation Reinforcement

On poor foundations, vertical loading generates lateral stress in the fill, particularly at the base. The resulting horizontal shear applied to the foundation causes lateral displacement failure at the structure. A soft sol foundation has high compaction, often with low permeability and long settlement time. Embankment cracking and structural failure on soft soil foundations often occur due to differential settlement. Conventional measures such as wick drains, increasing the width and height of the foundation, piled embankments, surcharging, etc, are complex technically with complicated or lengthy construction and high cost. The shearing resistance of soft soil foundations reinforced by EnduraGrid geogrid either alone or together with conventional measures is a great improvement. With compaction improved and reduction of differential settlement, the bearing capacity of foundations is enhanced. The cost of construction is reduced with less fill needed and time scale shortened.

Roads, railways, ports and other paved areas

One layer or multi layer EnduraGrid geogrid construction distributes loading and disperses stress more effectively, leading to the reduction of different settlement and improved foundation capacity.

Airport runways

A tough platform can be established withEnduraGrid geogrid reinforcement. Resistance to the impact of aircraft taking off and landing is improved with more effective and immediate load dispersal.

Temporary roads and other unpaved areas

EnduraGrid geogrid reinforcement gives ease of construction of temporary pavements with reduced construction costs.

High quality foundations for sports ground and tracks

Slopes Reinforcement              

In construction of roads and railways ,reduced land take, convenient construction and good safety margins at reduced cost can be achieved by the use of EnduraGrid geogrids reinforcement. In environmentally sensitive areas, steep vegetated slopes can often be built in place of the hard-faced structures that would be needed with conventional techniques.

Failed slope reinstatement

The material of the failed slope can be excavated and reused with EnduraGrid geogrid reinforcement to reinstate the failed area. This process has low cost and minimal impact on the local environment.

Reinstatement of spent quarries

EnduraGrid geogrids reinforcement, safe structures and permanent vegetation can be established to reintegrate spent quarries into the local environment.

Environment protection of slopes

EnduraGrid geogrids reinforcement can retain the face soil and encourage growth of vegetation. Natural vegetation will cover the whole facing, and special seeding coverage can be sowed to conform to surroundings if needed.

Walls/Abutments Reinforcement

A EnduraGrid geogrid reinforced wall is composed of geogrid, wall facing and fill. Because of the resistance of EnduraGrid geogrids to chemical and biological attack and its interlock with the fill, a wide range of fill materials may be used, including general backfill soil, construction waste,pulverised fule ash(FPA),etc. Reinforced walls can be constructed quickly with simple technology at low cost. Wall and slope faces can be designed economically to suit the clients requirement and to blend into the enviroment.Wall faces may be of brick, stone, or fully vegetated.

                     

EnduraGrid geogrid reinforced walls and abutments are tough and elastic composite structures of multiple layers of geogrid and fill. They can accommodate base deformation and have particularly good resistance to vibration and earthquakes. EnduraGrid geogrid reinforcement can improve the bering capacity and factor of safety of a structure and reduce construction cost.

Landfill

EnduraGrid geogrids can be utilized with other geosynthetic materials in the base, cover, temporary pavements and banks of landfill sites. The use of EnduraGrid geogrids can reduce landfill costs, increase capacity and improve safety margins.

                                          

Keywords: landfill

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09-12-2011

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The purpose of EnduraGrid is to reinforce or add strength to soil for applications including the strengthening of reinforced walls, pavements and highways, construction of earth walls, reinforcing embankments of earth dams, ponds, landfills, landslide repair, and railway track reinforcement. EnduraGrid PP Geogrids are manufactured by stretching high quality punched sheets of engineering grade polymer under closely controlled conditions.