Canadian Immigration Categories
Provincial Nominee Programs (PNPs) allow expedited immigration processing to meet provincial labour market and business needs. There are two types of PNP program, the skilled worker PNP for occupations in demand and the business immigration program designed to allow expedited immigration processing for experienced business people wishing to establish a new business invest money or joint ventures with a local business.
British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island and the Yukon all offer Provincial Nomination Programs.
Federal Business Immigration
Canada's Business Immigration Program seeks to promote economic development and employment by attracting people with venture capital, business acumen and entrepreneurial skills. The Business Immigration Program currently falls under three categories of immigrants:
Currently, those wishing to come to Canada as Entrepreneurs must demonstrate their intention and ability to establish, purchase or invest in a business that will create or maintain employment for at least one (1) Canadian citizen or permanent resident other than a member of their family. Those applying under the Entrepreneur category will have conditions placed on their visas which require them to prove to Citizenship and Immigration Canada officials that:
- they have purchased/invested in an existing business or have established a new business with net worth of at least $300,000 in Canadian funds;
- they have made a significant capital investment in the business;
- they have actively managed the business; and
- they have created at least one (1) job for a Canadian citizen or permanent resident of Canada other than a member of their family. Once the requirements are complied with, conditions placed on their Visas are removed.
Those interested in applying in the Self-Employed category must demonstrate an intent and an ability to create employment for themselves. Their endeavours must constitute a significant contribution to the Canadian economy or to Canada's cultural and/or artistic life.
An Investor is defined as a person who has successfully operated or controlled or directed a business or commercial undertaking and who has accumulated, through his/her own endeavours, at least $800,000 in Canadian funds. Prior to visa issuance, Immigrant Investors must pay $400,000 to the Receiver General for Canada. The investment is subsequently allocated to the participating provinces and territories in Canada. Funds are used for job creation and economic development. The full amount of investment (without interest) is repaid to the investor after 5 years. The exact date of repayment depends on when the $ 400,000 is received by the Citizenship and Immigration Canada. The return of the investment is fully guaranteed by participating provinces and territories. Investors are not required to start any business in Canada nor are any conditions imposed upon admission to Canada.
Canadian citizens or Canadian permanent residents may sponsor for admission to Canada the following persons:
- their Spouses, Common Law or Conjugal Partners 16 years or older
- their dependant children as defined in the Immigration Regulations
- their mother and father and any accompanying dependant children as defined in the Immigration Regulations
- their grandparent(s)
- brothers, sisters, nephews, nieces or grandchildren who are orphans; under the age of 18 and not married or in a common-law relationship.
Independent/Skilled Worker Category
Applicants in this category must have a minimum of one (1) year of full-time work experience in an occupation designated A, O or B in Canada's National Occupations Category list. Assessment is according to selection criteria: age, education, occupation, occupational demand, years of work experience, English/French language ability, personal suitability and family in Canada, assessed by Citizenship and Immigration Canada officials. Applicants must attain a minimum score of sixty seven (67) points to be eligible.
Live-in Caregiver Program
Quebec Immigration Categories
The province of Quebec is unique in that it has the authority to select its own candidates for immigration. Applicants who succeed in the province of Quebec do retain the right to mobility in Canada once approved.
Quebec have the following immigration categories; skilled worker, business class, immigrant investor, immigrant entrepreneur, self-employed and family class.
People who fear living in or returning to their countries, need protection and want to come to Canada come in the Refugee category. Canada accepts thousands of refugees every year in order to follow its objective in Canada's Immigration Act stating "to fulfill Canada's international legal obligation with respect to refugees and to uphold its humanitarian tradition with respect to the displaced and persecuted". Canada's refugee protection system consists of two components:
Refugee and Humanitarian Resettlement Program, for people seeking protection from outside Canada;
Asylum in Canada, for persons making refugee protection claims from within Canada.
Temporary Status Categories
Foreign workers whose skills are in short supply, or who can provide significant economic or other benefits to Canada, are issued Work Permit and admitted on a temporary basis. In many instances, a job validation from a Human Resources Skills Development Canada Centre (HRSDC) is required before the applicant can submit his/her Application for an Work Permit to Citizenship and Immigration Canada.
Most international students are required to have study permits to receive academic, professional or vocational training in Canada, if the course is longer than six months. Community college and university students may be issued authorizations which are valid for the duration of their program of study. Customary prerequisites are that the student:
- has already enrolled in a government-approved academic institution;
- has paid his/her tuition fees and been accepted by the academic institution; and
- has to know English or French to follow course lectures and reading assignments
The Immigration Act requires all visitors, except those exempt by regulation, to obtain a Visitor Visa before coming to Canada. Applicants must demonstrate to visa officials that they have significant family, social, economic and cultural ties to their country of origin and that they have sufficient means to support themselves during their visit to Canada. Applicants must also satisfy visa officials that there is no risk that they will overextend their visit to Canada.