Canoeing - Ahatranslation.com

By: Aha Translation  09-12-2011

Types of outrigger canoes

A six-person outrigger canoe

A variety of boat types exist, including the OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4 and OC6 (with the respective number of paddlers using a single hull outrigger canoe), and the DC12 or OC12 (with twelve paddlers using a double hull outrigger canoe, two six person canoes rigged together like a catamaran). The shorthand form is also commonly written as V1, V2, V6, etc.

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Types of outrigger canoes A six-person outrigger canoe A variety of boat types exist, including the OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4 and OC6 (with the respective number of paddlers using a single hull outrigger canoe), and the DC12 or OC12 (with twelve paddlers using a double hull outrigger canoe, two six person canoes rigged together like a catamaran). The shorthand form is also commonly written as V1, V2, V6, etc. (where V refers to vaa) Big Canoe Foreclosures

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The Cano Limon field is located in North-Central Aracua department at the Colombian northeast border with Venezuela. The field is located north/south and is approximately 8,000 ft beneath the Aracua River.(where V refers to vaa).

Single hull outrigger canoes have an ama (outrigger float) connected to the main hull by spars called iako (Hawaiian), iato (Tahitian), or kiato (Mori). The ama, which is usually rigged on the left side, provides stability. The paddlers need to be careful to avoid leaning too far on the opposite side of the ama, as that may cause the canoe to capsize (huli or lumai).

There are also outrigger sailing canoes ranging from smaller three or four person canoes to large voyaging canoes. Sailing canoes may have one ama, two amas (one on each side, but only one side is normally in contact with the water), or a double hull configuration (like a catamaran).

Paddling roles

In an outrigger canoe the paddlers sit in line, facing toward the bow of the canoe (i.e. forward, in the direction of travel, unlike rowing). The seats are numbered from 1 (closest to the bow) to the number of seats in the canoe, usually 6. The steerer (or steersman or steersperson) sits in the last seat of the canoe (seat 6 in the common OC6) and, as the name indicates, is primarily responsible for steering. The paddler sitting in seat 1 is called the stroke (or stroker) and is responsible for setting the pace of the paddle strokes. The first two positions may also be involved in certain steering manoeuvers.

In an OC1, the single paddler must also steer the canoe. Some OC1s have rudders operated by foot pedals, while OC1s without rudders must be steered by drawing and paddling as needed for steering purposes while paddling to move the canoe forward.

Steerers

A good steerer is able to maintain the straight attitude of the canoe throughout the course of a race, and also keep the boat and the crew safe in rough sea conditions. S/he may also take advantage of water conditions to gain extra speed by surfing. The steerer uses a single bladed steering paddle which has a larger blade than a standard outrigger paddle, is built stronger, and has less or no bend in its shaft. S/he steers by the following methods:

Poking: holding the paddle vertically against the side of the canoe, causing drag on that side to cause the canoe to turn that direction.

Drawing: paddling at a 45 to 90 degree angle to pull water under the canoe, causing the canoe to turn the opposite direction.

Posting: holding the paddle in the water out to the side with the forward edge angled opposite to the desired turn direction, usually as a prelude to drawing.

Paddling: by applying power on one side of the canoe, the steerer can influence to a small degree which way the canoe will turn. Paddling also increases the total power moving the canoe forward compared to the other steering methods.

A steerer also skippers the canoe and instructs all other the paddlers as necessary. As an outrigger canoe is a long narrow canoe with the steerer placed at the very end, the steerer must give instructions sufficiently loudly and clearly for the entire crew to hear. From a water safety perspective the steerer should also be amongst the most experienced crew members, and be knowledgeable with the waterways and weather conditions, relevant maritime rules and other safety considerations such as the use of personal floatation devices, rigging of the canoe, placement of paddlers in the various seating positions, and recovery from a huli by righting the canoe and bailing out the water.

Paddlers

Paddlers use single bladed paddles, usually with single or double bent shafts. The paddling stroke is similar to that of most other racing canoe paddling strokes, involving primarily core and lat strength. Generally, each paddler paddles on the opposite side from the paddler in directly front (for example, in an OC6, paddlers in seats 1, 3, and 5 paddle on one side, while paddlers in seats 2 and 4 paddle on the other side). All paddlers switch sides simultaneously on a call from one who is the designated caller. The steerer may paddle either side or switch sides as needed for steering purposes.

Stronger paddlers are typically placed in the middle of the canoe, while paddlers with the most endurance tend to be placed at the front, as the lead paddler sets the pace for the crew. All other paddlers synchronize their strokes to the paddler in front of them (whom they can directly see).

In rough water, it is often desirable to have a paddler with steering skill in seat 5 (of an OC6), to allow for the steerer to have that paddler also take steering strokes if needed in some situations. A seat 5 paddler with steering skill can also assist in preventing a huli by staying on the ama side during a particularly rough stretch of water.

In water rough enough to splash into the canoe, paddlers also need to pay attention to the water level in the canoe, report the situation to the steerer, and bail out the water as necessary. Paddlers also need to know how to recover from a huli under the steerer’s direction.

In a quick turn situation, paddlers at the front may also be instructed to une (poke steer, causes the canoe to turn the opposite direction) or kahi (post and draw steer, pulls the canoe to the side where this is done) to help bring the canoe around a turn quickly.

Racing

The length of a race ranges from short sprints (e.g. 250-500 metres for the OC1 and the OC12, 500-2000 metres (usually includes turns) for the OC6) to longer events, including marathons (e.g. 42 kilometres). A number of races are raced over distances that far exceed 42 kilometres, including the Molokai Hoe that crosses the Kaiwi Channel between the islands of Molokai and Oahu in Hawaii. However, long distance races of 20 to 30 kilometres are more common, with shorter 5 to 8 kilometre courses typically being offered to novice paddlers and those under 20 years of age.

Longer races involving the OC6 often involve paddler replacements, which involve exit and entry to the canoe directly from the water while the canoe is under way (this is called a water change). Typically, nine paddlers form a crew, with six paddling the OC6 and the other three resting, drinking, and/or eating on an escort boat. Replacement typically occurs at 20 to 30 minute intervals; the escort boat drops the relief paddlers into the water ahead of the OC6, which is steered toward them. The relief paddlers climb in on the ama side as those they are replacing roll out into the water on the opposite side. The escort boat then picks up the paddlers in the water so that they can rest, drink, and/or eat before they in turn relieve some of the paddlers in the OC6.

The longer races are typically conducted in the open ocean, e.g. between islands in the South Pacific. The Molokai Hoe in Hawaii and the Catalina Channel crossing in California are two examples of races involving water changes.

Paddlers and crews are usually classified by gender and age. Gender classification is typically straightforward, with male, female, and coed classifications, with the latter being a crew with equal numbers of male and female paddlers (different rules may apply to nine person coed crews doing a race with paddler replacements). Age classifications typically include youth divisions like 19-and-under, 16-and-under, etc., master divisions with minimum ages typically starting at 35 or 40 years of age, and an open division which allows paddlers of any age. A novice division for paddlers with less than a specified number of years of race experience (usually one or two) may also exist in a given association.

In some races, a particular type of outrigger canoe, usually a more traditional design for the region, may be given its own racing classification. For example, races in Hawaii have a koa division, while southern California has a Bradley OC6 division and northern California OC1 sprint races have a traditional (no rudder) division.

Adaptive (Disabled) Paddlers

Outrigger canoe paddling is a sport accessible to all. The International Vaa Federation (IVF) have included adaptive events in the World Sprints and the sport is growing in popularity amongst disabled athletes. Countries known to participate in adaptive outrigger canoe paddling include Italy, the United States (including Hawaii), Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom.

Modifications can easily be added to seats or paddles enabling athletes with a wide range of disabilities to participate in the same canoe and/or race as paddlers without disabilities.

External links

Outrigger canoeing at the Open Directory Project

“Master Strokes.” Hana Hou! Vol. 10, No. 3, June/July 2007. Article about the Manu O Ke Kai outrigger canoeing club in Haleiwa, Hawai’i.

Takia Outrigger Canoe Club Fiji

v d e

Canoeing and kayaking

Main sports

Sprint  Slalom  Marathon  Polo  Whitewater  Sailing  Freestyle

Olympics

Summer Olympics  Men’s medalists  Women’s medalists

Other sports

Creeking  Dragon boat  Extreme  Freeboating  Outrigger canoeing  Surf ski  Surf kayaking  Snowkayak  Squirt boating

International Canoe Federation

World Championships – Sprint (Men’s Canadian medalists, Men’s kayak medalists, Women’s kayak medalists), Slalom

Recreation

Small-craft Sailing  Whitewater canoeing/kayaking  Sea kayak  Canoe camping  Kayak fishing  Kayak diving  Kayak Walk  Dongola racing  Canoe orienteering  Canoe livery or rental  Crossing the Ditch

Modern boat types

Canoe  Kayak  Concrete canoe  Flyak  Folding kayak  International Canoe  Malia (Hawaiian canoe)  Recreational kayak  Sprint canoe

Traditional boat types

Aleutian kayak  Baidarka  Cayuco  Chundan Vallam  Outrigger canoe  Sturgeon-nosed canoe  Taimen  Umiak  Waka  War canoe

Manoeuvres & techniques

C-to-C Roll  Eskimo Rescue  Kayak roll  Kluning  Portage  Watercraft paddling

Equipment

Artificial whitewater  Albano buoy system  Outrigger  Paddle  Paddle float  Paddle leash  Royalex  Sea sock  Spraydeck  Tuilik

Meteorology & sea states

Clapitus  Whitewater

Kayakers

Jimmy Blakeney  Tyler Bradt  Paul Caffyn  Tad Dennis  Chris Duff  Douglas C. Gordon  tpnka Hilgertov  Freya Hoffmeister  Eric Jackson  Ramo Kolenovi  Brad Ludden  Andrew McAuley  Mark Pollock  Alex Prostko  Oskar Speck  Rush Sturges  Todd Wells  Nicholas Wiechern  Clay Wright  Alexander Yermilov

Venues

List of whitewater rivers  List of artificial whitewater courses  Playspot  Boulter’s Lock  Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness  Broxbourne White Water Canoe Centre  Canolfan Tryweryn  Cardington Artificial Slalom Course  Dickerson Whitewater Course  Dorney Lake  Dutch Water Dreams  Eiskanal  Hawaii-sur-Rhone  Helliniko Olympic Complex  Holme Pierrepont National Watersports Centre  Hurley Lock  Idroscalo  Kanupark Markkleeberg  River Thames  Millrace Rapids  Nene Whitewater Centre  Northern Forest Canoe Trail  Ocoee Whitewater Center  Ohio River Trail  Parc Olmpic del Segre  Penrith Whitewater Stadium  Raice, Czech Republic  River Dart  Rutherford Creek  Saint Regis Canoe Area  Shunyi Olympic Rowing-Canoeing Park  South Bend, Indiana  Stanley whitewater canoeing course  Symonds Yat Rapids  Tacen Whitewater Course  Teesside White Water Course  Texas Water Safari  The Loop, River Dart  Tour de Guden  U.S. National Whitewater Center  Upper Dart  Water Sports Centre unovo  Wolf River (Tennessee)

Competitions

List of world records in canoeing  2006 South American Games  2006 Asian Games  Adirondack Canoe Classic  Au Sable River Canoe Marathon  Devizes to Westminster International Canoe Marathon  Dusi Canoe Marathon  Hawkesbury Canoe Classic  Murray Marathon  National Student Rodeo  Thameside Series  Waterside Series

Suppliers & manufacturers

Attbar  Bliss-stick  Jackson Kayak  Rockpool Kayaks  Royak Marine  Tiderace Sea Kayaks

National governing bodies

American Canoe Association  British Canoe Union  British Dragon Boat Racing Association  Canadian Canoe Association  Croatian Canoe Federation  Scottish Canoe Association  USA Canoe/Kayak  Welsh Canoeing Association

Notable clubs

Burloak Canoe Club  Canoe Cruisers Association  Forth Canoe Club  Kingston Royals Dragon Boat Racing Club  Manchester Canoe Club  Philadelphia Canoe Club  Rideau Canoe Club  Royal Canoe Club  Viking Kayak Club

Other canoe/kayak organisations

Association of International Paddle Sport Federations  Canadian Canoe Museum  International Dragon Boat Federation  Sir Alexander Mackenzie Canada Sea-to-Sea Bicentennial Expeditions  UK Rivers Access Campaign

In the arts

Chasse-galerie  Men, Rivers and Canoes  Paddle-to-the-Sea  The Rise and Fall of the Great Lakes  Waterwalker

Categories: CanoeingHidden categories: Articles needing cleanup from January 2007 | All pages needing cleanup | Articles to be merged from February 2010 | All articles to be merged


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